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1. Gas and Steam Turbines San Lorenzo CCGT Power Plant, Batangas City, Philippines The $500 million San Lorenzo CCGT facility is now generating 500MW electrical power. It is located in Batangas City, along the Batangas Bay, around 100km from the Philippine capital Manila. The plant is adjacent to the Santa Rita Project. This strategic location allows it to share common facilities such as the tank farm and fuel jetty, thereby eliminating the need to duplicate various operational facilities. The power station uses a Siemens GUD.1S.3A model gas turbine, a steam turbine and a horizontal heat recovery boiler (HRSG) in each power generation unit. Two power generation units have a single-shaft configuration. The project's cost is estimated to be $500 million inclusive of capital costs, working capital requirements, related pipeline financing, insurance and development costs. The finance was based on 75% debt and 25% equity structure. Cost reductions via pooling of operations, maintenance and other expenses are also achieved. The plant opened in Q4 2002. In December 2003, the owners of the Santa Rita and San Lorenzo power stations and Meralco concluded a review of the Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) as mandated by the Electric Power Industry Reform Act. The owners and Meralco have cooperatively reviewed the PPA and incorporated a number of incentives intended to encourage increased plant utilisation and subsequent efficiency gains. GAS AND STEAM TURBINES The San Lorenzo plant uses the Siemens GUD.1S.3A model gas turbine with horizontal heat recovery boiler combined-cycle gas turbine technology. The plant consists of two 250MW blocks in single-shaft configuration. Each is equipped with a gas turbine, steam turbine, generator, heat recovery steam generation and auxiliary systems. The two model V84.3A gas turbines were manufactured at the Siemens/KWU plant in Berlin, and the two steam turbines and generators were supplied by Siemens/KWU plant in Mulheim. The EPC contract was a fixed-price turnkey, date-certain type contract with guarantees for completion and performance (heat-rate and output). The operational maintenance of the plant was awarded to Siemens Power Operations, Inc. (SPO), a 100% owned subsidiary of Siemens, Inc. in the Philippines. SPO manages, operates and maintains the plant and performs the services and obligations specified in the Operations and Maintenance Agreement. SAN LORENZO POWER PROJECT OWNERSHIP The San Lorenzo Project was commissioned by the First Gas Power Corporation (FGP Corp), which is owned by First Gas Holding Corporation (FGHC), BG plc, and Lopez, Inc. First Gas Holding Corporation has a 41.6% stake in FGP Corp; BG plc has a 23.4% stake and the remaining 35% stake belongs to Lopez, Inc. The San Lorenzo project played a critical role in establishing the Philippine natural gas industry. It is a beneficiary of the country's first natural gas production facility, in Palawan (developed by Shell). The San Lorenzo Project also promotes increased competition in the Philippine power sector. It allows Meralco (the buyer of electricity) to meet its demand requirements, and capitalises on the medium- to long-term power supply of the gap forecast for the region of Luzon. San Lorenzo operates as a baseload facility. Meralco will take or pay for a MEQ equal to the net electrical output of the plant at a capacity factor of 83%. Based on Meralco projections, the tariff offered by FGP Corp, under the San Lorenzo Power Purchase Agreement (PPA), is competitive with the NPC grid rate and Meralco's alternate sources of power. 2. Hydroelectric Power Plants in the Philippines Bakun AC Location: Ilocos Sur Operator: Luzon Hydro Corp Configuration: 2 X 35 MW Operation: 2000 T/G supplier: Sulzer, ABB EPC: Halcrow, Transfield Quick facts: In Jun 1997, PacifiCorp announced that it had finalized financial arrangements for this plant with equal partners Aboitiz Group and Pacific Hydro Ltd. The site is on the Bakun River in the Cordillera Central mountains about 250km north of Manila. A small diversion dam delivers water through a 10km tunnel to the powerhouse. A third unit was planned but canceled in Oct 2004. In June 1997, BankAmerica announced financial close on Bakun AC with a consortium of banks including AB Capital Investment Corp, ING Bank, Philippines National Bank, and SolidBank Corp providing loan facilities. PacifiCorp withdrew from LHC in 1999 leaving Aboitiz and Pacific Hydro as 50:50 partners. BA Asia completes first financing for Napocor build-operate-transfer hydroelectric facility in the Philippines Business Wire, June 11, 1997 HONG KONG--(BUSINESS WIRE)--June 11, 1997--Bank of America's Hong Kong-based merchant banking subsidiary, BA Asia Limited, announced today that it has closed a $168 million Bakun AC hydroelectric power facility financing at Luzon in the Philippines. The project is the first hydroelectric power facility under the build-operate-and transfer (BOT) program of the government-owned power utility, National Power Corporation (Napocor). Construction is underway and scheduled for completion in the year 2000. BA Asia acted as financial advisor to the project company. A consortium of banks -- AB Capital, ING Bank, PNG and Solidbank -- will provide three loan facilities for the 70-megawatt, run-of-the-river project set in the mountains of central Luzon in the Benguet and Ilocos Sur provinces. The project's sponsors are Aboitiz Equity Ventures, a major infrastructure investment firm operating several minihydro power plants in the Bakun River valley; Pacific Generation of Portland, USA, a subsidiary of PacifiCorp Holdings, Inc. and a major US utility and IPP developer; and Pacific Hydro, a developer and operator of several hydro projects in Australia. Transfield Construction of Australia has been retained as the project's turnkey contractor. The facility will supply power to Napocor under a 25-year, BOT arrangement. Plant ownership will transfer to Napocor when the BOT term expires. Napocor has a government guaranteed purchase agreement to buy all available power from the plant and will pay in US dollars to eliminate currency risk to project lenders. The Bakun AC facility is one of the first projects to be financed largely through local FCDU dollar funds. This eliminates the need for political risk insurance and is indicative of a maturing Philippines' project finance lending market. The project consists of a small dam to divert river water through a 10 km tunnel dropping 550 meters over its length. The water flows through a power station where electricity is produced and is returned to the river. The facility does not require a reservoir and the resettlement or environmental concerns often associated with hydroelectric facilities are not involved in this project. The facility, because it uses no fuel, will not be a pollution source but should generate a substantial foreign currency savings for the Philippines. 3. Nuclear power stations in the Philippines Philippines: Bataan nuclear plant costs $155,000 a day but no power NEARLY 30 years after work began on the Bataan nuclear power plant just north of Manila, Filipino taxpayers are still paying 155,000 dollars a day in interest on a structure that has never produced one watt of power. Thelmo Cunanan, chief executive of state-run Philippine National Oil Co., said it had become the country's most outstanding white elephant. "The fact that we are still paying interest on a project that is 30 years old and has not produced a watt of electricity should send at least one positive signal to the investment community," he told Agence France-Presse in a telephone interview. The signal was that "If we enter an agreement at least we pay our bills. There were times when I thought: why should we? Why don't we simply turn our backs and walk away from it but that is not the way we Filipinos do business." The Bataan nuclear power plant was a knee jerk reaction by former Philippine dictator Ferdinand Marcos to the energy crisis of the early 1970s. The oil embargo had put a heavy strain on the economy and Marcos saw nuclear power as the best way forward in terms of meeting the country's future power needs and lessening the nation's reliance on imported oil. Construction began in 1976 and was completed in 1984 at a cost of 2.3 billion dollars. The power station, 60 miles (97 kilometres) north of Manila, has been the centre of controversy from the day construction began. When Marcos was overthrown by the so-called People Power Revolution in early 1986 a team of international inspectors visited the site and declared it unsafe and inoperable as it was built near major earthquake fault lines and near the Pinatubo volcano which at the time was dormant. The first post-Marcos government of Corazon Aquino sealed the nuclear plant's fate for good when it banned the use of nuclear power and enshrined it into the Constitution. Debt repayment on the plant is the country's biggest single obligation. Successive governments have looked at ways of converting the plant into an oil, coal, or gas-fired power station. According to Cunanan a South Korean company recently expressed an interest in taking over the nuclear power station and developing it as a commercial operation. But the provision in the constitution ruled it out. Cunanan said it would be unfair to name the company but said the government has not ruled out converting the plant into a fossil fuel power station. Some studies in the past have shown that converting the plant may be too expensive. The plant itself has been maintained despite never having been commissioned. A Westinghouse light water reactor, it was designed to produce some 621 megawatts of electricity. Much of the technology used in the plant was early 1970s but modified following the Three Mile Island accident in the United States in 1979. ntroduction Between 1993 and 1995, M.E.T.T.S. undertook a study of the options for converting the Bataan Nuclear Power Station to fossil fuel (coal or natural gas) combustion. One aim of the study was to find another market for Philippine and Australian coal or natural gas (LNG). The essential question regarding the Bataan Reactor is: how to obtain a financial return from a very expensive power station that * has never produced electricity; * is costing the Philippinec State a sizeable sum in interest; and * has environmental, safety and social concerns over its use as a nuclear power station. The retrofitting of the turbine generator with a fossil fuel fired steam raising system was suggested as a means of utilising part of the plant, and obtaining some return for past and future expenditure. The report/proposal examined some options for fossil fuel firing, and compared those options with nuclear operation. Background The Bataan Nuclear Power Plant was completed in 1984, whilst construction commenced in 1976. It is a Westinghouse light water reactor, that uses pressurised water as it heat exchange medium between the reactor and the steam generators. Its design thermal capacity is 1876MW(t), whilst its rated power output is 621MW(e)1. The technology that is incorporated into the plant is essentially early seventies, but has been modified to incorporate more recent safety devices, such as those recommended by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, after evaluation of the Three Mile Island incident. The plant, which was in the process of commissioning at the time of the EDSA revolution, has not been fired, although nuclear fuel was delivered to it storage facilities. Maintenance has continued, with the integrity of the plant and ancillaries being ensured. Conclusion of Study The Philippine Government has previously stated that the Philippines will have nuclear power, but that power will come from new plant and not the Bataan reactor. President Ramos announced on the 8th October 1994 that the Reactor would be converted to a 1000MW combined cycle gas plant. (Although an announcement for a specific conversion scheme has been made, it is still considered that there is time for other options to be considered.) We found that conversion is technically possible, but economically unwise. New and dedicated coal or natural gas fired power plants would give much higher efficiencies, and thus would give the Philippines much better value per peso spent on fuel consumed. The M.E.T.T.S.'s study concluded that the only way of obtaining a reasonable return from the Bataan 'machine' is to use it as a nuclear power plant. Our report specifically came to the following conclusions: * That the use of the present 'nuclear' turbine/generator in a fossil fired system would be highly wasteful of energy (fuel), * A new pulverised coal power station and/or combined cycle natural gas power stations at other site(s), would be a better investment in terms of fuel efficiency and levellised power costs, * The Bataan site is inappropriate for coal fired plant, due to environmental constraints and materials (coal and ash) handling problems, * More assessable sites could be found for combined cycle natural gas fired plants around Manila Bay, and Batangas, * The Bataan reactor has been maintained in a good condition since mothballing, and * The reactor is of basically sound design and construction, and could with modest expenditure become one of the most modern and safest light water reactors in East Asia. To fire the plant as a nuclear facility, the sea water intakes to the condensers would need to be cleaned (with some equipment being replaced), some of the reactor monitoring systems would need to be further upgraded, whilst the second power transmission system would need to be reconstructed. Staff would need to be retrained and re-licenced. A description of the study is presented in the attached article by Clarke, Ebeling and Cordero. The article was presenred at The First Philippine International Conference on Energy Efficiency and Demand Side Management, Manila, January 1995. Click here to read the article on the Bataan Nuclear Power Station Conversion Options GOOD LUCK ON YOUR PROJECT IF YOU GO ON THE WEBSITE BELOW YOU CAN COPY AND PASTE PICTURES TO YOUR PROJECT.